That is why I think, regardless of the salutary lesson of the two elections this year, nothing much will change. The PAP will continue to be caught flat-footed by people’s aspirations and frustrations. They will continually be playing catch-up with demands, because the paradigm they work with does not anticipate — does not even allow for — legitimate new demands. They are smart enough to see the demands when articulated, but they are unable to grant those demands the same legitimate validity as their own core beliefs. They see popular demands like the way parents see the demands of selfish children; something you may have to grant to keep them quiet, but ultimately still not right. And if you accede, do it in half-measures, so as not to encourage more demands.